AATCC (American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists)
A widely recognized association whose work focuses on development of standards of testing dyed and chemically treated fibers and fabrics.
Wear or texture change to an area of carpet that has been damaged by friction caused by rubbing or foot traffic.
Acid dyeable nylon
Nylon polymer that has been modiﬁed chemically to make the ﬁber receive acid dyes. Acid dyeable yarns are available in different dye levels (light, medium and deep).
A base ingredient in the production of Type 6,6 nylon. Adipic acid has a chain of six carbon atoms. It is reacted with hexamethylene diamine, which also has six carbon atoms, to polymerize Type 6,6 nylon.
Adipic Acid and Hexamethylene Diamine
These are the fundamental building blocks (monomers) of nylon 6,6.
Properties perceived by touch and sight, color, luster and texture of carpet.
The tendency for two elements or substances to combine chemically. An example is the affinity of acid dyes for nylon fiber.
Air-entangling (also known as intermingling, commingling or heathered)
A method of producing yarn by combining two or more BCF fibers together. Fibers are “locked” together via air jets at regular or irregular intervals. The process is used to obtain special effect yarn (i.e., mixing dye variants to get heather effects upon subsequent dyeing or combining different colors of solution dyed fiber). Various air-entangling processes exist making it possible to produce a wide range of aesthetics in finished yarns, from highly blended, near solid looks to yarns where individual colors are accented and color separation mimics that of plied yarns.
This is a broad designation that includes non-traditional fuels such as solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) promotes and facilitates consensus standards and conformity assessment systems and safeguards their integrity. ANSI is also actively engaged in accrediting programs that assess conformance to standards, including globally recognized cross-sector programs such as ISO 9000 (quality) and ISO 14001 (environmental) management systems.
An agent that kills microbes. Amine end groups: The terminating (-NH2) group of a nylon polymer chain. Amine end groups provide dye sites for nylon (polyamide) fibers.
Resisting the tendency to produce annoying static electric shocks in situations where friction of the foot tread builds up static in low-humidity conditions. Some nylon fibers introduce a conductive ﬁlament in the yarn bundle to conduct or dissipate static charges from the human body. Oleﬁn ﬁber is inherently static-resistant, as it is similar to the surface of most shoe soles (only dissimilar surfaces rub to create a static charge). There are two basic methods for controlling the buildup of static in nylon carpets: (1) Treating the carpet with a topical spray. This is not permanent and creates a tendency for the carpet surface to soil. (2) Adding a carbon composite nylon ﬁlament into the bundle of yarn to act as a dissipating rod carrying the static charge away from the person generating it.
The most specified brand of commercial carpet ﬁber. Antron® nylon combines a superior Type 6,6 polymer substrate, ﬁber engineering, DuraTech® advanced soil resistance technology, and INVISTA performance testing and construction standards, resulting in carpet ﬁbers that perform well in the most demanding commercial environments.
ASTM (The American Society for Testing and Materials)
One of the largest voluntary standards development organizations in the world. ASTM is a not-for-profit organization that provides a forum for the development and publication of voluntary consensus standards for materials, products, systems and services.
Atmospheric fading test
A test that indicates a change of shade or hue of dyed fabric caused by a chemical reaction between certain dyes and acid gases. Recommended test methods for carpets (AATCC 129
—Ozone and AATCC 164—Oxides of Nitrogen) would specify a minimum rating, after two cycles, of no less than International Gray Scale for Color Change rating of 3.
(1) An oven-like apparatus for use in yarn heatsetting operations. Under pressure in a superheated steam atmosphere, yarn is given a “memory” of its twist. Autoclave heatsetting is a batch, not a continuous, method. (2) An apparatus for making polymer under heat and pressure.
Average pile density
The weight of pile yarn in a unit volume of carpet. It is expressed in ounces per cubic yard in the formula: Density = pile yarn Weight (in ounces per square yard) times 36 divided by pile Thickness or pile Height (in inches). Average pilem density factors for commercial carpets range from
4200 to 8000.
D = W x 36
T or H
A weaving method that originated in the 18th century in Axminster, England. In this method, individual pile tufts are inserted from spools of colored yarns, making possible an almost endless variety of colors and geometric or floral patterns.
An adhesive compound applied for the purpose of locking pile yarn tufts into a carpet backing, bonding a secondary backing to a primary backing, increasing the fabric body or stiffness, and increasing dimensional stability.
Materials comprising the back of the carpet, as opposed to the carpet pile or face.
Backing (Backing fabric)
A fabric into which a pile yarn is inserted, or a reinforcing layer that is adhered to the reverse side of a fabric.
Backing (For fusion-bonded carpets)
Backing material for fusion-bonded carpet is a system of layered vinyl or plastic compound and ﬁberglass scrim for dimensional stability.
Backing (For tufted carpets)
(1) Primary backing—In tufting, a woven or nonwoven fabric in which the pile yarn is inserted by the tufting needles. Usually woven or nonwoven polypropylene for carpet. In the past woven jute was used. (2) Secondary backing—Fabric laminated to the back of carpet to reinforce and increase dimensional stability. Usually woven or nonwoven polypropylene.
Backing (For woven carpets)
Backings of woven carpets are the “construction yarns” comprising chain warp, stuffer warp, and shot or ﬁll, which are interwoven with the face yarn during carpet fabric formation.
Backing systems (Attached cushion)
Padding, such as foam rubber or polyurethane, that is made as an integral part of the backing.
Backing systems (Conventional backing)
Carpet with a primary and secondary latex-laminated woven or nonwoven fabric. Sometimes referred to as ActionBac®.
Backing systems (PVC hard-backed or closed-cell PVC (polyvinyl chloride))
Used mostly in carpet tile or 6’ wide goods due to its weight and stiffness. PVC gives a stiff, stable backing with little cushioning but excellent tuft bind and stability.
Backing systems (Thermoplastic)
A molten resin process that permanently adheres the primary and secondary backing. This backing system is branded as Unibond® by Lees Carpets.
Backing systems (Unitary)
A single lamination of fabric backing with high rubber content latex or hot-melt resin compound for increased tuft bind. Used primarily with loop pile carpet.
Backing systems (Urethane (polyurethane))
A polymeric resin applied by the carpet mill in the ﬁnishing process. In the heat and curing chamber it reacts and creates a foam-like texture. This backing encapsulates the yarn for extra tuft bind with a cushion attached.
A container of approximately 650 pounds of staple ﬁbers, wrapped and ready to be shipped to the yarn spinner or carpet mill with yarn spinning capacity.
Two different colors of yarn twisted together to form a two-ply yarn. BCF yarn: An abbreviation for Bulked Continuous Filament yarn, referring to synthetic ﬁbers in a continuous form. BCF yarn can be used in cut or loop pile construction.
A large cylinder on which carpet yarns, usually predyed, are wound prior to feeding onto tufting, weaving or fusion bonding equipment.
Dyeing of tufted greige carpet in a large vat of dye liquor. In this process, the carpet roll is sewn into a loop and then is continuously rotated and immersed in the heated vat for several hours. Most commonly used for cut pile carpet, it offers good custom color flexibility. See “Dye methods.”
Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability is an approach formulated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to evaluate the life-cycle impact of building products.
This waste material is composed primarily of naturally occurring constituent parts, able to be broken down and absorbed into the ecosystem. For example, wood is biodegradable, while plastics are not.
Loss of color by a fabric or yarn when immersed in water or a solvent, as a result of improper dyeing or the use of dyes of poor quality. Fabrics that bleed will stain white or lightly shaded fabrics that come in contact with them when wet.
A mixture of two or more ﬁbers or yarns.
The mixing of staple ﬁbers before they are carded, drafted, and spun into yarn. Blending is done for consistency in the ﬁnal yarn and is a critical step to avoid “streaks” in a carpet.
(1) An uneven yarn of three plies, one of which forms loops at intervals. (2) A fabric made of boucle yarns and having a looped or knotted surface.
Synthetic fiber produced by a fiber manufacturer who also produces the raw ingredients and polymer and who has quality control of the entire process. Branded fiber is warranted by the fiber manufacturer.
BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method)
This is the world’s longest established and most widely used method of assessing, rating and certifying the sustainability of buildings. BREEAM was developed in the United Kingdom in 1990 and is widely used in Europe. The LEED and Green Globes Rating Systems were both based on BREEAM.
The opposite of dull or matte when describing luster.
Denotes carpet tufted or woven in widths greater than six feet.
The process of a textured or latent crimp yarn to achieve maximum bulk. Carpet fibers develop maximum bulk during wet processing such as dyeing.
Also known as crimping or texturizing. Bulking imparts texture/fullness to the ﬁber or yarn during production. Bulking is done to increase the coverage and bloom the yarn will have in the carpet face. Bulking also adds to ﬁber resiliency (“spring back”). See “Texturizing.”
A yarn formed by twisting together two or more plied yarns.
Calcium Carbonate (limestone) is a mined substance that is commonly used as filler in products ranging from plastics, antacids, blackboard chalk, and, of course, carpet. It is abundant, inexpensive, and totally inert.
California AB 2398- Carpet Stewardship Law
A California law passed in 2011 designed to increase the recycling rate of carpet in the state. The law assesses a $.05 fee on every yard of carpet sold in the state. The funds go to support new recyclers and promote consumer awareness. This is the first (and only) Extended Producer Responsibility law for carpet in the US. Other states (WA, MN, and others) have legislation pending as of mid-2013.
The single basic ingredient in the production of Type 6 nylon. Caprolactam has a chain of six carbon atoms. It is a petrochemical.
This is the fundamental building block (monomer) for nylon 6.
This is a term for commodities that can be purchased to offset carbon or climate changing emissions. These offsets originate from projects that eliminate or curb greenhouse gas emissions, such as the installation of renewable energy or methane capture at a landfill.
This is the process of capturing carbon from various sources (e.g. coal-fired power plants) and storing it permanently (e.g. deep ocean or well injection), inhibiting the release of GHGs to the atmosphere, which contribute to climate change.
Organizations or products carry this designation when the associated carbon dioxide—the most common greenhouse gas (GHG)—or other GHG emissions are offset to ensure there is a net balance in emissions. That is, if a product emits 10 tons of carbon dioxide during the manufacturing process, the same amount of carbon dioxide must be captured or eliminated from the atmosphere to achieve carbon/climate neutrality.
The step after blending in the staple spinning process which combs out the loose ﬁbers and arranges them in orderly strands called sliver. Sliver is drawn and blended, then twisted and further drawn into yarns.
Carpet America Recovery Effort (CARE) is a joint industry and government effort to increase the amount of recycling and reuse of post-consumer carpet and reduce the amount of waste carpet going to landfills. Bentley, along with almost all of our competitors, is a member of CARE.
Carpet & Rug Institute (CRI)
Based in Dalton, Georgia, the CRI is a nonprofit trade association representing the manufacturers of more than 95 percent of all carpet made in the United States, as well as their suppliers and service providers. CRI coordinates with other segments of the industry—distributors, retailers, and installers—to help increase consumers’ satisfaction with carpet and to show them how carpet creates a better environment. CRI is the best source of general technical information about carpet.
See “Modular carpet.”
Cationic dyeable nylon
Nylon polymer that has been modified chemically to make the ﬁber receptive to cationic (basic) dyes. Cationic dyeable yarns are used in conjunction with acid dyeable yarns to produce multicolors in piece dye methods.
The CE mark is required for many products within the European Economic Area (“EEA”, consisting of the 28 EU Member States, and the EFTA countries Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway). It states that the product is assessed before being placed on the market and meets EU safety, health, and environmental protection requirements. All of Bentley’s products sold in the EU carry the CE mark.
The ability or degree that a stain is removed from a carpet.
Coal Fly Ash (CFA)
CFA is a by-product of coal combustion, which is typically landfilled. More recently, it has been used as inert filler in a number of products, including cement and carpet. CFA is currently designated as a pre-consumer waste. Bentley does not currently use any fly ash in our products.
The proper coordination of color and shade. Critical to color matching are: (1) The lightn under which the colors are compared. (The light source being used in the real conditions of the commercial environment should be used to match colors.) (2) The surface texture of the object being matched (cut pile carpet can appear darker than loop made of the same yarn). (3) The surface luster of the object being matched (higher yarn luster can look darker than lower luster ﬁbers).
Bentley’s post-process dying color tool that allows you to take complete control of the floor. COLORCAST™ utilizes a standard order size of 50 square yards in tile or broadloom (based on style availability) and up to 5% overage.
The ability of a fiber or carpet to retain color when exposed to (1) ultraviolet light, (2) crocking (wet or dry) and (3) atmospheric conditions (according to manufacturers’ and government test standards).
An INVISTA technology that combines fibers to create random placement of color similar to a space dye aesthetics in the finished carpet. ColorLink technology is used for carpets of Antron® Legacy nylon, Antron® Brilliance™ nylon and Antron Lumena® solution dyed nylon.
Matching of colors within acceptable tolerances, or with a color variation that is barely detectable to the naked eye.
(1) The carpet manufacturing method, usually tufted, woven or bonded. The key terms are illustrated on page 8. See also “Fusion Bonding.” (2) The term also can refer to the specific details of a particular carpet’s specification, including fiber type, yarn twist level, density, method of dyeing, etc.
Dyeing of carpet (greige) while it travels continuously through a dye range. The process is frequently referred to by the name of one of the prime machinery manufacturers, Eduard Kuster (pronounced “Kooster”). Continuous dyeing can produce multicolored or solid-colored carpet. Multicolored carpet is achieved by using yarns of varied dye affinity, or with various accessories that can give a pattern or overprint. Advantages include large dye lots, relatively low cost and color flexibility. However, this method is more critical than beck dyeing or yarn dyeing for side-to-side matching consistency (the carpet must be installed in roll sequence).
Unbroken strand of synthetic fiber, such as ﬁlament nylon or oleﬁn. Nylon and oleﬁnare made by extruding molten polymer through a spinnerette (similar to a showerhead). The ﬁbers are cooled, then stretched and textured into bundles referred to as yarn. This yarn can be plied or commingled with other yarn and then tufted.
The process of applying heat to yarns to “set” or retain bulk, twist and spring introduced by spinning and/or twisting. Continuous heatsetting can be applied to staple or continuous ﬁlament yarns. The two primary types of continuous heatsetting equipment are the Superba, which uses steam and pressure, and the Suessen, which uses dry heat. See “Heatsetting.”
Continuous or “Kuster” dyed
A method of continuously dyeing carpet. A piece dye method. Kuster manufactures a continuous dye machine that is commonly used. Printing is another continuous dyeing process. Large lots of a single dye series are possible with continuous dyeing, but side-to-side color consistency should be veriﬁed.
Continuous solid color dyed
A process of dyeing singles or plied yarn using dye rolls. The application of dye is similar to continuous space dye process except that a single color is applied to the yarn. These solid color yarns can be tufted into multicolored carpets.
An intermediate that usually buys raw fiber, processes it to a carpet manufacturer’s specification, then sells the finished product to the carpet manufacturer.
The yarn numbering system based on length and weight originally used for cotton yarns and now employed for most staple yarns. It is based on a unit length of 840 yards, and the count of the yarn is equal to the number of 840-yard skeins required to weigh one pound. Under this system, the higher the number, the ﬁner the yarn. A typical carpet yarn might be a three cotton count two-plied, written as 3.0/2c.c.
Cradle-To-Cradle® Certification (C2C)
A multi-attribute green label that is based on the principles outlined in the book, Cradle to Cradle—Remaking the Way We Make Things. The certification awards points in five areas: material health, material reutilization, renewable energy, water stewardship, and social responsibility. There are levels of certification ranging from Basic to Platinum. This certification began as a proprietary system; however, in 2012, an independent non-profit called the Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute was developed to take over the certification process. Independence, openness, and transparency are the Institute’s first objectives for the certification protocols. Bentley’s High PerformancePC broadloom products and NexStep® and AFIRMA™ carpet tile products are Cradle to Cradle certified at the Silver level as of November 2013. C2C certification will be a pathway toward LEED points in the revamped Materials & Resources section of LEED v4.
The rack or frame located behind a tufting machine which holds the cones of pile yarn that feed into the needles of a tufting machine.
CRI (The Carpet and Rug Institute)
A national trade association representing the carpet and rug industry.
In ﬁber, a nonlinear conﬁguration, such as a sawtooth, zigzag or random curl relative to the ﬁber axis. Most synthetic ﬁbers, both staple and ﬁlament, used in carpets are crimped. Fiber crimp increases bulk and cover and facilitates interlocking of staple ﬁbers in spun yarns. See “Texturizing.”
The resistance of transfer of colorant from the surface of a colored yarn or fabric to another surface, or to an adjacent area of the same fabric, principally by rubbing.
The removal of dye from a fabric by rubbing. Crocking can be caused by insufﬁcient dye penetration or ﬁxation, the use of improper dyes or dyeing methods, or insufﬁcient washing and treatment after the dyeing operation. Crocking can occur under dry or wet conditions.
The shape of a ﬁber when cut perpendicularly to its axis. Man-made ﬁber cross sections vary to produce a wide variety of physical effects such as soil-hiding characteristics, soil releasing, luster, and ﬁneness or coarseness. Hollow filament fiber shapes are highly engineered and are among the most advanced filament cross sections. The delta is among the most advanced staple cross section.
The collapsing of pile yarns, resulting in carpet matting and loss of resilience. This form of carpet failure usually occurs in the areas of heaviest trafﬁc. It is also called “matting” and “walking out.” It can be minimized by the use of more resilient ﬁbers, denser construction, and somewhat higher weight, and (in cut pile) higher tuft twist and proper heatsetting.
The three-dimensional crimp patented by INVISTA for its BCF yarn. This texture is added to the yarn by a series of air jets. See “Texturizing.” Curvilinear crimp gives consistency, bulk and spring-back memory that is needed in the manufacture of cut pile ﬁlament carpets and streak-free loop carpets.
Carpet having a cushion, padding or underlay material as an integral part of its backing. Cut and loop pile: Carpet whose face shows a pattern, either geometric or floral, made up of a combination of loop pile tufts and cut pile tufts. The carpet can be dyed solid or multicolored. Cut pile: A pile surface created by cutting the loops of yarn in a tufted, woven or fusion-bonded carpet.
The metric equivalent to denier; equals the total weight in grams of 10,000 meters. Decitex is used in Canada and Europe.
A label from the Living Building Challenge, Declare is like a “nutritional label” for a product. It lists all ingredients and products, which are rated on how they comply with the Living Building Challenge’s Material Red List. Manufacturers disclose all of their material ingredients and the products are rated Red List Free, Red List Compliant, or Declared. Bentley has a Declare Label for our Nexstep® Cushion Tile products. See “Living Building Challenge” and “Red List” for more information.
Fibers made from polymers that have been chemically modified to increase their dyeability. Carpets made of deep dye fibers can be dyed more easily to a darker color depth.
A form of deterioration of tufted carpet in which the primary back and face yarns separate from the secondary back.
To subdue or dull the natural luster of a textile material by chemical or physical means. The term often refers to the use of titanium dioxide or other white pigments used in textile materials.
Synthetic ﬁbers with polymer additives and/or cross section design modiﬁcations that limit its natural brightness or reflectivity. Delustering improves soil-hiding characteristics, as it limits the soil magniﬁcation that would occur with clear or shiny ﬁber.
As the environmental impacts of a product are closely tied to the amount of material used, dematerialization is a design philosophy that utilizes the least amount of materials possible to provide the necessary functionality and performance.
A weight-per-unit-length measure of ﬁlament ﬁbers or yarns. Denier is numerically equal to the weight in grams of 9,000 meters of ﬁber. Denier is a direct numbering system in which the lower numbers represent the ﬁner sizes and the higher numbers the coarser sizes. In the U.S., the denier system is used for numbering ﬁlament yarns and man-made ﬁber staple (but not spun yarns).
Denier per filament (dpf)
The size of an individual ﬁlament (BCF or staple). Dpf is the weight in grams of 9,000 meters of the individual ﬁlament. It can be calculated by taking the yarn denier and dividing it by the number of ﬁlaments in the yarn bundle. Common range of commercial carpet dpf is 15 dpf to 28 dpf.
Yarn denier (bundle): The total weight in grams of 9,000 meters of a ﬁlament yarn bundle. Common commercial carpet yarn deniers range from ~1,200d to 5,000d.
See “Average pile density.”
Design for the Environment (DIE)
A methodology for the design of products and systems that promotes pollution prevention and resource conservation by including within the design process the systematic consideration of the environmental implications of engineering designs.
Fibers that haven different dye afﬁnities combined together to produce multicolor carpet from a single dyeing.
The ability of carpet to retain its size and shape once installed. Typically, dimensional stability is obtained in tufted carpet by the application of a secondary back. In woven carpet, dimensional stability is normally provided by choosing stable backing yarns, especially the stuffer and ﬁlling, as well as by application of latex to the completed carpet.
This term references any product that is not closed-looped recycled (back into the same product it originated from). Due to its negative connotation, we prefer to reference downcycling as open-loop recycling. (See Open-loop vs. Closed-loop Recycling)
Drawing (third stage of nylon production)
(1) The process of ﬁber stretching to align molecules after extrusion. This process gives ﬁbers greater tensile strength. This is done in synthetic ﬁber production after the molten ﬁber strands harden. (2) The process of pulling and thinning of sliver (combed staple ﬁber strands) in the spinning of staple yarn. Multiple ends of sliver are blended by feeding them through rollers at a slower speed than their uptake. This causes the ﬁbers to be pulled or drawn and parallelized. The resultant ﬁnished sliver is ready to be spun into yarn.
A drop match is a pattern that continues across the
carpet diagonally or at a 45-degree angle to the edge of the seam.
DSDN® solution dyed nylon
Carpets of DSDN® nylon provide the right balance of stain resistance, color fastness and value for budget sensitive installations. It is ideal for tenant improvement (TI) and hospitality (rooms carpet).
A term applied to manufactured fibers that have been chemically or physically modified to reduce the brightness of the fiber.
DuraTech® soil resistant treatment
DuraTech® soil resistant treatment is a durable fluorochemical/soil release product and is only available on carpets of Antron® nylon. DuraTech® soil resistant treatment is applied during the final step of the carpet manufacturing process. The high temperature to which the carpet is exposed during this final step helps the DuraTech® soil resistant treatment physically bond with Antron® nylon. As part of INVISTA performance testing, the amount of DuraTech® soil resistant treatment applied is evaluated for each Antron® nylon style.
A quantity of carpet dyed at one time or made from yarn dyed at one time which is consistent in color throughout the fabric.
Beck dyed: A method of batch dyeing carpet. A piece dye method. The carpet is sewn into a loop, then hung on a large reel in the dye beck unit which moves the carpet through the dye liquor. This process is continued for a set time and achieves excellent color uniformity throughout the carpet.
Functional groups within a fiber that provide sites for chemical binding with the dye molecule. Dye sites may be either in the polymer chain or in chemical additives included in the fiber. 8
This is a process for separating lighter materials from heavier ones using air or liquids. This is commonly used in carpet recycling operations to segregate different constituents (e.g. nylon from latex).
An accounting methodology that sums the total energy necessary for an entire product lifecycle. The embodied energy of a Bentley product is the total energy required to make our carpet.
(1) An individual fiber making up a yarn to be tufted into carpet (2) An individual pile yarn in a tufted carpet or a roll. (3) An end or short length of carpet or remnant.
Energy Star is a program that evaluates the energy efficiency of appliances, house fixtures, and other home utilities. Co-sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Energy Star program seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by identifying energy-efficient appliances, helping Americans save money on utility bills with more energy-efficient homes.
Environmental Management System (EMS)
An EMS is a written procedure to manage and control an organization’s impact on the environment. At Bentley, we utilize our own internal EMS based on ISO 140001 protocol.
Environmental Product Declaration (EPD)
An Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) is a statement of product “ingredients” and environmental impacts across a product’s life cycle. EPDs enable customers to make informed decisions by providing easily comparable information about the environmental impacts of products. EPDs are based on true Life Cycle Analysis and are third-party verified. Bentley currently has eight EPDs that cover approximately 90% of our products.
Environmentally Preferable Products (EPP)
EPP is defined as products or services that have a lesser or reduced effect on human health and the environment when compared with competing products or services that serve the same purpose. This comparison may consider raw materials acquisition, production, manufacturing, packaging, distribution, reuse, operation, maintenance or disposal of the product or service.
Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR)
EPR is a mandatory type of product stewardship that includes—at a minimum—that a producer’s responsibility for its product extends to post-consumer management of that product and its packaging. In practical terms, this means that a producer (manufacturer, brand owner, or an organization that represents its interests) designs, manages, and implements a product stewardship and recycling program. FULFILL, Bentley’s reclamation program and our membership in the CARE organization are examples of EPR.
More than 10,000 traffics per day or more than 2,000,000 traffics for the life of the carpet. Could also include some directional, nondirectional, pivoting and rolling traffic, as well as tracked-in dirt. See “Foot traffic units.”
Extrusion (second stage of nylon production)
The process of forcing molten material through a spinnerette (similar to a showerhead). Once exposed to air cooling, the ﬁber strands harden. It is at the extrusion stage that many of the ﬁber engineering improvements take place: cross section design, shape, size and uniformity to give better soil hiding, soil releasing, and strength. All synthetic carpet ﬁbers are extruded.
The total weight of the face (above the backing) yarns in the carpet.
A standard laboratory testing machine, which uses gas, light or ozone to conduct fading tests.
Loss of color caused by sunlight or artiﬁcial light, atmospheric gases including ozone, nitrogen dioxide and hydrogen sulphide, cleaning and bleaching chemicals such as sodium hypochlorite, and other household and industrial products. Commercial installations in areas where such exposures occur require care in selection of colorfast carpet.
Laboratory tests designed to predict the likelihood of carpet fading under actual use conditions. Fading is usually caused either by ultraviolet light or by exposure to ozone or nitrogen oxide gas. Carpet can be tested in laboratory for results against fading agents. Dye stuff, hue or ﬁber can affect fading. A speciﬁc carpet being considered for a critical installation should be tested prior to ﬁnal selection.
A unit of matter, either natural or man-made, that forms the basic element of fabrics. The term refers
to units that can be spun into a yarn or felting and can be processed by weaving, tufting, knitting or fusion bonding. Important properties include elasticity, ﬁneness, uniformity, durability, soil resistance, luster, and denier.
Refers to improvements to the ﬁber including: (1) Polymer characteristics. (2) Polymer additives (delusterant or solution dye pigments). (3) Cross section design. (4) Fiber ﬁnishes (low surface energy fluorochemical coatings for soil release).
Refers to the cross section and size of individual ﬁlaments. Fiber shape impacts soil hiding and soil release (cleanability). See “Cross section” and “Extrusion.”
Refers to the denier per ﬁlament (dpf) or thickness of a ﬁlament. Fiber size impacts soil-trapping and soil releasing capabilities.
Fiber which has been extruded and is then converted into yarn fiber, staple or tow.
The number of individual filaments that make up an extruded yarn fiber, staple or tow.
Processing of carpets after tufting (weaving) and dyeing is called ﬁnishing. Processes include application of secondary backing, application of attached foam cushion, application of soil-resistant treatment, shearing, brushing, dyeing, printing and others.
Flame resistance tests (also called “flammability tests”)
Procedures that have been developed for assessing the flame resistance of carpets. The most commonly accepted are:
A term used to describe a material that burns slowly or is self-extinguishing after removal of an external source of ignition. A fabric or yarn can be flame-resistant because of the innate properties of the fiber, the twist level of the yarn, the fabric construction, the presence of flame retardants or a combination of these factors.
A Green Label for Indoor Air Quality of Hard Surface Flooring. It is comparable to Green Label Plus certification for carpet.
A measurement of the amount of soil resistance chemical (fluoro-chemical) applied to the fiber during the carpet manufacturing process. This can be performed for the initial application of the fluorochemical as well as for the durability of the chemical to remain after hot water extraction cleaning.
Low-surface-energy technology used as a soil resistance treatment for carpet. The DuraTech® soil resistant treatment is used on all carpets made of Antron® nylon. DuraTech® soil resistant treatment attaches to the chemical structure of the ﬁber after being heated during the finishing step to protect the carpet from soiling.
Foot traffic units
One foot traffic unit is described as a pedestrian walking across a measured section of carpet, one time. Foot traffic is classified as follows:
Light less than 100/day
Moderate 100 –1,000/day
Heavy 1,000 –10,000/day
Extra Heavy more than 10,000/day
See individual traffic rating for details.
A volatile organic compound (VOC) used in the manufacture of building materials and household products. It is listed as one of the Chemicals of Concern on the Living Building Challenges Red List and is thought to be a human health hazard. Formaldehyde is NOT used to manufacture carpet. The CRI Green Label Plus testing and certification assures consumers that carpet is not a significant source of any VOCs, including formaldehyde.
Racks at back of a Wilton loom that hold spools from which yarns are fed into the loom. Each frame holds separate colors; e.g., a three-frame Wilton has three colors in the design.
A yarn that has been very tightly twisted to give a rough or nubby appearance to the ﬁnished carpet pile.
FTC Green Guides
The Federal Trade Commission’s (FTC) green guides are designed to assist companies to ensure that the claims regarding the environmental attributes of their products are truthful and non-deceptive. The Green Guides are intended to prevent greenwashing and, although they are not laws, they do include guidelines on the use of carbon offsets, green certifications and seals, renewable energy claims and renewable materials claims.
Fabrication of carpet for a 6’ wide or modular tile. It uses a thermoplastic process that implants yarn in a liquid vinyl compound to two backingmaterials in a sandwich conﬁguration. A knife splits the sandwich to create two carpets simultaneously. Spun yarn is used in this process, and only cut pile carpets are produced.
A hairy effect on the carpet surface caused by ﬁbers working loose under foot trafﬁc or by slack yarn twist. This can be caused by poor latex penetration, poor yarn spinning, poor twisting and heatsetting, or improper maintenance. Not to be confused with initial shedding, a normal phenomenon associated with spun cut pile construction.
The number of ends of surface yarn counting across the width of carpet. In tufted carpet, gauge is the number of ends of surface yarn per inch counting across the carpet; e.g., 1/8 gauge = 8 ends per inch. In woven carpet, pitch is the number of ends of arn in 27 inches of width; e.g., 216 pitch divided by 27 8 ends per inch. To convert gauge to pitch, multiply nds per inch by 27; e.g., 1/10 gauge is equivalent to 70 pitch, or 10 ends per inch.
Global Warming Potential (GWP)
Global Warming Potential expresses how much a particular greenhouse gas will contribute to global warming. CO2 is the reference point and has a GWP of 1, while methane, a more potent greenhouse gas, has a GWP of 25 over a 100-year time frame. That is, methane will contribute 25 times more to global warming than the equivalent sum of CO2 over 100 years.
A form of tufting machine apable of producing patterns, usually by the use of hifting needle bars that may be individually controlled or by individually controlled needles or a combination of
the two. Major reﬁnements using computer technology ave been engineered into “graphics machines.” ach new machine improvement brings tufting patterns earer to those of woven capability.
Green Design/Green Building
Architectural design conforming to environmentally sound principles of building, material, and energy use. A green building, for example, might make use of solar panels, skylights, and recycled materials.
A green building rating system developed by the Green Building Initiative in 2005. It has not gained the popularity of LEED. Criticisms of Green Globes include a lack of transparency, lack of prerequisites, and it is perceived to be less rigorous and quantitative then LEED.
Green Label Plus Certification (GLP)
The Carpet and Rug Institute’s Green Label Plus program evaluates the level of VOC emissions from carpets and adhesives. Products that carry the GLP designation are certified to have low VOC emissions, ensuring healthful indoor air quality.
Green Seal Certification
A green label that designates environmental preference of a product. Green Seal certifies a variety of products. LEED requires that adhesives, sealants, paints, and coatings be Green Seal certified.
This annual conference and exposition of the U.S. Green Building Council promotes green building materials, techniques, and products. The first Greenbuild was held in 2002 and has grown to be the world’s largest conference and tradeshow dedicated to green building.
Greenhouse Gas (GHG)
Greenhouse gases are any gases that absorb infrared radiation in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases include, but are not limited to, water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and ozone (O3).
Greenhouse Gas Inventory
An accounting of the amount of greenhouse gases emitted to or removed from the atmosphere over a specific period of time (e.g. one year). A greenhouse gas inventory also provides information on the activities that cause emissions and removals, as well as background on the methods used to make the calculations.
Greenwashing is the act of misleading consumers regarding the environmental practices of a company or the environmental benefits of a product or service.
(Pronounced “gray” goods.) Termb signating carpet in an undyed or unﬁnished state.
How the carpet feels to the touch. Factors etermining how the carpet feels include weight, tiffness, ﬁber type, dpf, density and backing.
Health Product Declaration
The Health Product Declaration (HPD) Open Standard is available to manufacturers as a standardized format for disclosure of product contents, emissions, and health information intended to help designers, specifiers, and building owners and occupants make informed purchasing decisions. The HPD is meant to increase transparency and reduce redundant disclosure demands by referencing existing hazard lists and providing a human health context for information disclosed in an Environmental Product Declaration. Several major design firms have begun to require manufacturers to complete HPDs on their products in order to continue to be considered for projects. HPDs will contribute to the new version of LEED (v4) along with EPDs in the Material Ingredient Reporting and Optimization Credits.
Healthy Building Network
The Healthy Building Network is an organization founded in 2000 that publishes and researches information on the sustainability of building materials and advocates for the use of environmentally friendly building materials and building policies. The Pharos Project is one of their main projects and is used publish to the environmental impact information of building materials. (See: Pharos Project)
A temperature phenomenon in which heat-absorbing buildings, especially those with dark roofs and non-reflective surfaces, release heat absorbed from sunlight into the surrounding atmosphere. The resulting effect is an increase in outdoor air temperature of two to eight degrees Fahrenheit in a specific area or “island.” Bentley has mitigated the heat island effect at our manufacturing facility by installing a white reflective “cool roof”, using light-colored roofing and paving materials that do not absorb heat, as well as planting trees and vegetation. All of these efforts contributed to our LEED-EBOM Gold Certification.
A subtle multicolored effect produced by ommingling (intermingling) yarns or spinning blended bers of different colors together.
Process for stabilization and setting a emory of twist in plied yarns. “Autoclave” treats skeins I with pressurized steam in a batch operation. “Superba” uses conditions similar to the autoclave but it is a continuous process. “Suessen” is a continuous dry heatsetting method used most commonly for spun yarn heatsetting. See “Continuous heatsetting.” See illustration on page 13.
1,000 to 10,000 traffics per day or up to 2,000,000 traffics for the life of the carpet. Could also include some directional, nondirectional and rolling traffic, as well as tracked-in dirt. See “Foot traffic units.”
A frame of parallel wires (like needles) through which warp yarns are threaded. The heddle is raised and lowered to interlace face yarns.
A chemical compound, with a chain of six carbon atoms, that is reacted with adipic acid to make Type 6,6 nylon. It is a petrochemical.
Hexapod drum test
An instrument to test pile floor coverings to produce changes in appearance and color due to changes in surface structure by mechanical action. This accelerated test, primarily used in Canada, provides a specific rating of the ability of the carpet to withstand crushing and matting.
Hollow filament fibers
Refers to ﬁlaments with interior voids. Hollow-core ﬁbers improve the soil-hiding ability of nylon by diffusing light passing through the ﬁber. The diagram shown isone of the fiber shapes used for Antron® nylon.
A carpet in which two or more different yarn types are combined in the carpet construction.
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)
Indoor air quality is a term that refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants. All of Bentley’s products are tested for low VOCs by the Carpet and Rug Institute and meet the IAQ requirements of LEED.
International Gray Scale for Color Change
A standard comparison to rate degrees of color change from 5 (no change) to 1 (severe change).
International Gray Scale for Staining
A standard comparison to rate degrees of staining from 5 (no stain) to 1 (severe stain).
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
ISO is the world’s largest developer and publisher of International Standards. EPDs and LCAs are created following ISO guidelines.
As the producer of Antron® carpet fiber, INVISTA is the world’s leading integrated fibers business with brands like STAINMASTER® carpet, LYCRA ®, COOLMAX® and many more.
ISO (The International Organization for Standardization)
A non-governmental, worldwide organization whose work results in international agreements that are published as International Standards.
An internationally recognized standard for development and implementation of an environmental management system. Organizations are third-party certified to ISO 14001. ISO certification is a substantial annual financial investment. At Bentley we utilize our own internal environmental management system based on ISO 14001.
A ﬁbrous plant, native to India and Asia, which can be shredded and spun into yarn, used for backing in woven carpets, or itself woven into sheets and used as secondary backing on tufted carpet. In many applications, jute is being replaced by ﬁberglass, polypropylene or other synthetic ﬁbers.
See “Dye methods – Space dyed.”
A fabrication process comprised of interlacing yarns in a series of connected loops with needles. Some carpet is produced by knitting, but it is generally categorized as woven carpet. In carpet knitting, as in weaving, pile and backing are produced simultaneously. Multiple sets of needles interlace pile, backing and stitching yarns in one operation.
A trade name of a manufacturer of continuous dyeing machines that apply dye to tufted carpet. See “Continuous dyeing.”
A water emulsion of synthetic rubber, natural rubber or other polymer. In carpet, latex is used for laminating secondary backings to tufted carpet, backcoating carpet and rugs, and for backcoating woven carpets and rugs. Almost all carpet latex consists of styrene-butadiene synthetic rubber (SBR) compounded with large quantities of powdered ﬁller.
LEED Accredited Professional
A person who has passed a LEED Professional Credential Exam. LEED AP is the mark of the most qualified, educated, and influential green-building professionals in the marketplace. There are currently three tiers of the LEED credential: LEED GA (Green Associate), LEED AP with Specialty, and LEED Fellow. Note: people are LEED accredited and projects are LEED certified.
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design is the US Green Building Council’s premier rating system for the design, construction, and operation of high-performance green buildings. Projects may earn one of four levels of LEED certification (Certified, Silver, Gold, or Platinum) by achieving a given number of point-based credits within the rating system. There are different types of LEED Certification that cover all types of buildings including Interiors, New Construction, Healthcare, Schools, and Existing Buildings: Operations Maintenance. Bentley’s mill in City of Industry, California is the only LEED-EBOM Gold carpet manufacturing facility in the industry.
The fourth and latest version of the LEED rating system. It will be officially rolled out at Greenbuilld 2013. This new version contains the biggest changes to the rating system in its 13-year history and the majority of these changes are in the Materials & Resources (MR) Credits where carpet contributes to LEED points. The new MR section will focus on a product’s total environmental impacts; it will be a much more holistic approach rather than a single attribute definition of product sustainability such as recycled content. Recycled, renewable, and regional materials will still contribute to LEED; however the main focus will be on other factors such as life cycle impact, ingredient reporting, and optimization.
Level loop pile
A woven or tufted carpet style having all tufts in a loop form and of substantially the same height.
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
a methodology for inventorying and assessing the full environmental impacts associated with a product or process. The scope of this analysis encompasses the entire life cycle from the extraction of raw materials to end-of-life management.
Less than 100 traffics per day. Could also include some directional traffic, but no tracked-in dirt. See “Foot traffic units.”
The degree of resistance of dyed textile materials to the color-destroying influence of sunlight. Two methods of testing are in use: (1) Exposure to sunlight, either direct or under glass. (2) Accelerated laboratory testing in which several types of artiﬁcial light sources are used. See “Fadeometer.”
Living Building Challenge (LBC)
A green building rating system created in 2006 that is thought to be the world’s most rigorous design and construction standard. LBC goes “beyond LEED” in that it is a set of prerequisites instead of a points system. The materials section of the LBC requires products to be “Red List Ready” meaning they need to be free of any of the materials on their Red List, which they deem to be the 14 “worst in class” chemicals of concern. There are a handful of Living Buildings across the globe. Bentley’s Tall Story NexStep® Cushion Tile is installed in a soon-to-be-certified (2013) Living Building, the Van Dusen Botanical Center in Vancouver B.C. (See: “Declare Label” & “Red List”)
A tufted or woven carpet pile surface where the face yarns are comprised of uncut loops. Loop pile can be level, textured or multilevel. Luster: Brightness or reflectivity of ﬁbers, yarns, carpets or fabrics. Synthetic ﬁbers are produced in various luster classiﬁcations including bright, semi-bright,
semi-dull and mid-dull. The luster of ﬁnished carpet could also be influenced by yarn heatsetting methods, dyeing and ﬁnishing. In high-trafﬁc commercial areas, duller carpet yarns
Mechanical vs. Chemical Recycling
Within the carpet industry, an example of mechanical recycling would be the shearing of post-consumer, nylon, face fiber to be used in needle-punched underlayment or other consumer products. An example of chemical recycling would be nylon depolymerization, where heat is applied to post consumer nylon to deconstruct polymers into their simplest building blocks (monomers). Once the monomers are of sufficient purity, they can be repolymerized to create near virgin-quality material.
The temperature at which a carpet fiber changes from a solid to a liquid.
Metameric color match
A color match between two materials in which the colors are identical under some lighting conditions but not under others. Metameric color matches are common when different pigments or dyestuffs are used to color the two materials.
Methenamine pill test
See “Flame resistance tests.”
Methenamine Pill Test
A carpet flammability test described in federal regulations CPSC1-70 and CPSC 2-70. It measures the size of the burn hole produced by an ignited methenamine tablet under controlled conditions. Also used on the back of carpet. All carpet sold in the U.S. must pass the CPSC 1-70 flammability test.
Synthetic fiber that is extruded by a carpet manufacturer using polymer purchased from a fiber producer or chemical manufacturer. Type 6 nylon and polypropylene (olefin fiber) are commonly mill extruded. See “Olefin fiber” and “Nylon Type 6.”
100 to 1,000 traffics per day. Could also include some directional and nondirectional traffic, some pivoting and little tracked-in dirt. See “Foot traffic units.”
Modified delta cross section
An advanced ﬁber cross section engineered by INVISTA. The smooth delta shape hides soil and minimizes soil buildup more than trilobal cross sections. (The trilobal has deep crevices that trap soil particles.)
Modular carpet or tile
Also called “carpet tile.” Generally 18” x 18” squares cut from 6’ wide or broadloom carpet. Sizes may also be 36” x 36”, 36” x 18” or 24” x 24.”
A single ﬁlament of a man-made fiber usually of a denier higher than 14. Monofilaments are usually spun individually instead of through a spinnerette.
A multi-color carpet made of (moresque) yarns which are produced by ply-twisting two or more singles yarns of different colors or shades. The Moresque aesthetic can be achieved by using long space dyed yarns in a patterned carpet where tonal colors have been used in the space dyed yarns.
Multiple continuous filaments or strands of man-made fiber that are extruded together, usually from multiple holes of a single spinnerette.Multifilament yarns are texturized to increase bulk and cover, and are called “bulked continuous filament” (BCF) yarns.
Multilevel loop pile
A woven or tufted carpet style having tufts of varying pile heights, resulting in a sculptured appearance, pattern or subtle shading. Today most multilevel loop styles are made on tufting machines equipped with servo motor controls. The servos allow for precise patterning and more exact yarn control/usage.
A non-renewable resource is one that is not capable of being naturally restored or replenished, a resource that is used faster than it can be replaced (e.g. fossil fuels).
(1) Any carpet manufactured by a method other than weaving, but particularly those composed of fibers held together by chemical, mechanical, adhesive or fusion means. (2) Any primary backing material manufactured by a method other than weaving.
NSF 140/Sustainability Assessment for Carpet Standard
A multi-attribute green label that is based on a Life Cycle approach to product sustainability. NSF 140 was developed in 2007 and has quickly become a carpet industry standard and it is the requirement for GSA and several state contacts. All of the products manufactured by Bentley are NSF 140 certified at the Gold level.
NSF International, The Public Health and Safety Company™, is a not-for-profit, non-governmental organization and is the world leader in standards development, product certification, education, and risk-management for public health and safety. For over 60 years, NSF has been committed to public health, safety, and protection of the environment. While focusing on food, water, indoor air, and the environment, NSF develops national standards, provides learning opportunities through its Center for Public Health Education, and provides third-party conformity assessment services while representing the interests of all stakeholders. The primary stakeholder groups include industry, the regulatory community, and the public at large.
A petrochemical-based ﬁber invented in 1938. There are two basic types of nylon used in the production of carpet: Type 6,6 nylon and Type 6 nylon.Nylon is produced in bulked continuous ﬁlament for use in loop carpets and cut pile carpets, and staple nylon that is spun into yarn for use in cut pile carpets. Nylon is the dominant fiber choice for commercial use due to its wear characteristics. See illustration on page 20.
A thermoplastic used as a fiber in commercial carpet. There are two common types of nylon (6 and 6,6).
Nylon flake (or chip)
Polymer that has been cut into small pieces for storage or for immediate melting in the ﬁber extrusion process.
Made from one base ingredient:caprolactam. Compared to Type 6,6 nylon, Type 6 nylon accepts dye at a faster rate. The more open molecular structure of Type 6 nylon allows dye stuffs (and stains) in more readily. Common spills and stains such as coffee, soda, foodstuffs and medicine will stain Type 6 nylon more readily than Type 6,6, whether solution dyed or conventionally dyed.
Made with two base chemical ingredients: adipic acid and hexamethylene diamine. Type 6,6 nylon has a tighter molecular structure, making it more resilient and more resistant to stains than Type 6 nylon. In the U.S., where the highest commercial carpet standards are set, more than 60% of all nylon carpets specified are Type 6,6 nylon NYLON: A thermoplastic used as a fiber in commercial carpet. There are two common types of nylon (6 and 6,6).
Also known as polypropylene. It isused for molded items, sheets, ﬁlms and ﬁbers. Made from a by-product of gasoline reﬁning, oleﬁn has one ingredient: propylene. Since propylene is widely available at a comparatively lower cost than nylon base ingredients, oleﬁn is less expensive than nylon. Oleﬁn does not accept aqueous-based dyes or stains. Color is added in the manufacturing process in the form of pigment. Printable modiﬁcations are available but not extensively used. Oleﬁn is a lightweight ﬁber and can have good bulk and cover. However, the polymer base creates a soft ﬁber that has poor resiliency, a lower melting point and poor texture retention as compared to nylon. The carpet ﬁber is available as bulked continuous ﬁlament yarn. Only when budget is the main consideration, lower life expectancy is anticipated and long-term appearance retention is not a priority, should oleﬁn be considered.
Open-loop vs. Closed-loop Recycling
Closed-loop recycling indicates a product can be recycled back into itself, while open-loop recycling (downcycling) indicates that it can be recycled into other types of products (e.g. soda bottle into fiber). Open-loop recycling is often regarded as worse than close-loop recycling. Value judgments often have to be made as to which route is more environmentally beneficial. For example, a closed-loop recycling option for a product may require more energy than the open-loop option, but this open-loop option requires more water for reprocessing, comparatively. Depending on personal value judgments and pressing regional environmental issues, determining which of these recycling options is best may not be obvious.
The term used to describe the amount of twist that gives the best texture retention and/or necessary carpet aesthetic.
The fading of color from a dyed or pigmented ﬁber caused by atmospheric contaminants of ozone.
This is similar to skein dyeing in as much as undyed yarn is wound on perforated tubes and the packages are dyed by passing dye liquor through the packages under pressure.
A process of dyeing carpet, yarn or ﬁber stock continuously. The material to be dyed passes through a trough containing the dye liquor and then between heavy rollers that squeeze the dye liquor evenly into the material.
Spinning method most commonlyused in spinning nylon staple ﬁber into yarn. Staple ﬁbers measuring 4” to 8” are paralleled by combing and drafting until the ﬁbers are in regular even slivers, or strands of combed yarn. Multiple slivers are combined to make up one ﬁnely drafted sliver. This sliver can be further blended for extreme consistency. The ﬁnal sliver is put on a spinning frame and further drawn (or pulled) as twist is applied, turning the ﬁber into a cohesive singles yarn ready to be plied and heatset. See “Sliver.”
Parts Per Million (PPM)
A measuring unit for the concentration of one material in another. When looking at contamination of water and soil, the toxins are often measured in parts per million. One part per million is equal to one thousandth of a gram of substance in one thousand grams of material. One part per million would be equivalent to one drop of water in 20 gallons. The Material Health section of Cradle to Cradle certification looks at ingredients in parts per million.
Lining up patterned carpet in such a way that the design element is continued across seams, making the ﬁnished installation appear cohesive. Patterns must be matched in the same way as they appear on the carpet itself, either in a set match or drop match. See “Set match” and “Drop match.”
Visually apparent streaking in patterned carpet resulting from linear juxtaposition of pattern elements in one direction. It is usually most visible in the length direction. It is not a carpet defect, but is inherent in certain designs. Contract speciﬁers should view rolls of carpet laid out on a floor to evaluate geometric or other busy patterns for this characteristic which may be objectionable in long corridors and other large areas, but not visible in small rooms.
A woven or tufted carpet style having all tufts in a loop form in either a defined or random pattern and design.
Persistent Bioaccumulative or Toxic (PBTs)
PBT pollutants are chemicals that are toxic, persist in the environment, and/or bioaccumulate in food chains. They pose risks to human health and ecosystems.
An online product database for the building materials. Manufacturers self report on the Pharos Project website and the data is analyzed for potential health and human safety risks. Specifiers use Pharos to select healthful building materials. Bentley’s products are listed on the Pharos website.
A photovoltaic array (also called a solar array) consists of multiple photovoltaic modules, often referred to as solar panels, to convert solar radiation (sunlight) into usable electricity. Bentley’s 100 kw solar array was installed in 1999 and provides a portion of our electrical energy; the rest is made renewable through the purchase of RECs. (See: Renewable Energy Credits)
Picks per inch
In woven carpet and fabric, the number of ﬁll yarns per inch of length. Comparable to stitches per inch in tufting.
A method in which tufted carpet is dyed, as opposed to yarn dye methods in which color is added
to yarn before tufting. See “Dye methods.”
Highly colored, insoluble substance used to impart color to other materials. White pigments (e.g., titanium dioxide) are dispersed in ﬁber polymers to produce delustered (semi-dull and dull) ﬁbers. Colored pigments are added to polymer to create producer colored or solution dyed yarns.
Same as solution dyed yarns.
The visible surface of carpet, consisting of yarn tufts in loop and/or cut conﬁguration. Sometimes called the face or nap.
Loss of pile thickness by compression and bending of tufts caused by foot trafﬁc and heavy pressure from stationary furniture. The tufts collapse into the space between them. It may be irreversible if the yarn has inadequate resilience and/or the pile has insufﬁcient density for the trafﬁc load.
The length of the tufts measured from the primary backing top surface to their tips. Pile tufts should be gently extended but not stretched during accurate measurement. This speciﬁcation is expressed in fractions of an inch or decimal fractions of an inch in the U.S.
A persistent change in the direction of the pile lay in certain areas resulting in an apparent visual difference of shade. Also known as watermarking, pooling or shading.
The resulting thickness when the thickness of the backing is subtracted from the total thickness of the finished carpet.
The weight in ounces of the fiber in a square yard of carpet.
The yarn making up the tufts of the carpet.
See “Flame resistance tests.”
The tendency of fibers to work loose from a surface and form balled or matted particles that remain attached to the surface of the carpet.
A mechanism used in parallel spinning to orient the ﬁbers by using combing pins and rollers.
A measure of the number of individual yarns twisted together to produce the ﬁnished carpet yarn. For example, a two-ply yarn means that each tuft consists of two yarns twisted together. For cut-pile carpets, plied yarns must be heatset to prevent untwisting under foot traffic.
A synthetic fiber, usually produced with staple fiber and spun yarns, that is used in some carpet fiber.
Polymers are large chemical molecules from which synthetic ﬁbers are made. Polymers are complex, chain-like molecules made by uniting simpler molecules called monomers. Synthetic polymers used for commercial carpet ﬁber include Type 6,6 nylon and Type 6 nylon (polyamides) and polypropylene.
Polymerization (first stage of nylon production)
A chemical reaction where small molecules combine to form much larger molecules.
See “Oleﬁn fiber.”
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
PVC is a thermoplastic that has historically been the most common carpet tile backing. Bentley’s products are 100% PVC free and pass the Living Building Challenge Red List. (See: Red List)
Post-Consumer Recycled Content
This is reused/recycled material after it has been in the consumer’s hands (e.g., a newspaper going back to the paper mill to be recycled into new recycled content paper products).
Carpet that has been dyed in its tufted form. Post-dyed means the carpet, rather than the yarn, has been dyed.
Post-Industrial (Pre-Consumer) Recycled Content
This is reused/recycled material before it ever goes to market (e.g. paper scraps off of a paper mill floor going back into the next batch of paper); waste material generated during the manufacturing process.
Carpet that has been constructed with colored yarns either by solution dyeing or yarn dyeing.
See “Backing systems.”
Carpet having printed colored patterns. Printing methods include flatbed screen printing, rotary screen printing and modern computer programmed jet injection printing.
A carpet manufacturer brand name given to a fiber that is mill extruded or produced by a fiber manufacturer. At any given time the carpet manufacturer may choose to change the source of fiber which results in varying performance characteristics of the carpet. See “Mill-extruded fiber.”
Color introduced into nylon fiber at the nylon manufacturing stage. See “Dye Methods–Solution-dyed.”
Product Category Rule (PCR)
The parameters and boundaries by which a LCA (Life Cycle Analysis) must adhere. A PCR creates consistent and uniform information that allows for comparison among similar products. Bentley’s EPDs are published according to the European Union’s PCR for Carpet.
See “Backing systems.”
Radiant panel test
See “Flame resistance tests.”
Radiant Panel Test
A test for the flammability of carpets or rugs in which the specimen is mounted on the floor of the test chamber and exposed to intense radiant heat from above. The rate of flame spread is assessed. (ASTM E-648 Class I .45 watts/cm; Class II .22 watts/cm.)
A carpet texture created by lightly shearing (shaving off) either level loop or high-low loop so only some of the tufts are sheared. Shearing gives a cut and loop texture.
Rapidly Renewable Resource
A resource that is capable of being naturally restored or replenished within a 10-year cycle. Products manufactured with Rapidly Renewable Resources can contribute to LEED points. Examples are wool, corn, soy, and bamboo.
REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals)
Reach is a regulation passed in the European Union in 2006 that addresses the production and use of chemical substances (i.e. everything made of atoms), and their potential impacts on both human health and the environment. REACH is thought to be the catalyst behind the development of “red lists” and the demand for increased product ingredient transparency in the US.
Red 40 Stain Scale
A standard comparison to rate degrees of Red Dye 40 staining from 10 (no staining) to 1 (severe staining).
One of several lists of Chemicals of Concern pertaining to the built environment. This red list is from the Living Building Challenge’s list of the 14 “worst in class” materials that are not allowed on a LBC project. PVC is one of the banned materials on the Red List. All of Bentley’s products are “Red List Ready” meaning that they are free of any of these materials. (See: Declare, Living Building Challenge.)
This is energy generated from naturally replenishing resources such as wind, tides, solar, and geothermal resources.
Renewable Energy Credits (RECs)
RECs are commodity certificates indicating the purchase of renewable energy (e.g. wind, hydro, solar, etc.). Bentley purchases RECs annually so that 100% of our electrical energy is made renewable.
These are natural resources that can replenish with the passage of time, either through biological reproduction or other naturally recurring processes.
The distance from a point in a design in a patterned carpet to a point where the identical pattern appears again, measured lengthwise and widthwise in the carpet. In matching the pattern, there will inevitably be some waste of carpet in order to obtain the best possible side match—whether it is a drop or set
The ability of carpet to spring back to its original texture and thickness after being walked on or compressed by the weight of furniture. Also known as “resiliency.”
Rows or wires
In woven carpet, this is the number of pile yarn tufts per running inch lengthwise. Called rows in Axminster and wires in Wilton and Velvet carpet. Analogous to “stitches per inch” in tufted carpet.
Also called zigzag crimp, this is a two-dimensional crimp that gives yarn cohesion, texture and bulk.
A cut-pile carpet texture consisting of plied, heat-set yarns in a relatively dense, erect configuration, with well defined individual tuft tips.
Scientific Certification Systems (SCS)
SCS is a third-party certification and assessment body. SCS is committed to delivering professional services that encourage organizations in a variety of industry and service sectors to establish and maintain practices that support environmental, social and quality goals and that can be continually improved upon.
See “Backing systems.”
The edge of the carpet. Most commercial carpets are shipped with the selvage on. Residential carpet is usually trimmed to the face yarn.
Refers to a pattern in a carpet which continues straight across the installed carpet at right angles to the seams.
Apparent color shade difference between areas of the same carpet caused by normal wear and/or random difference in pile lay direction. It is a characteristic of cut pile carpet. It is not a manufacturing defect.
Finishing process in cut pile carpet manufacturing to create a smooth carpet face. The shearing process can also be used to create texture, as in random shearing. See “Random sheared” or “Tip shearing.”
Sick Building Syndrome
A building whose occupants experience acute health and/or comfort affects that appear to be linked to time spent therein, but where no specific illness or cause can be identified. Complaints may be localized in a particular room or zone, or may spread throughout the building and may abate on leaving the building. (SEE: IAQ)
One yarn end of either continuous ﬁlament yarn or spun yarn. Singles yarn is most often plied, twisted, or air-entangled with additional singles yarns to create a “two-ply,” “three-ply” or “four-ply” yarn bundle.
A method of dyeing yarn. Undyed spun or ﬁlament yarns are plied and heatset, then reeled into skein form and dyed in skein dye kettles.
Skein dyed yarn
Singles yarn that has been skeindyed. Yarn is wound in skeins and dyed in dye vats. This method yields small to mid-sized dye lots, but has custom color advantages. See “Dye methods.”
An intermediate stage in the production of spun yarns from staple ﬁber. It is a large, soft, untwisted strand or rope of ﬁbers produced by carding or pin drafting. See “Parallel spinning.”
Smoke chamber test
Method that assesses smokegenerating characteristics of a carpet sample due to pyrolysis and combustion by measuring the attenuation of a light beam by smoke accumulating in a closed chamber under controlled conditions.
The ability of a fiber to mask the presence of soil.
The ability of a carpet fiber to resist dry soil and maintain its original appearance after intermittent or restorative cleanings. The amount of soil resistance can be determined by fluorine analysis.See “Fluorine analysis.”
See “Dye methods.”
Pigment is added to the molten polymer from which the ﬁlaments are made. The ﬁber is extruded in colored form.
Reducing the amount and/or toxicity of a product before it is ever generated (e.g. buying an item with less materials or packaging, using a non-toxic alternative)
South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD)
SCAQMD is the air pollution control agency for all of Orange County, California and the urban portions of Los Angeles, Riverside, and San Bernardino counties. SCAQMD rule #1168 was written to limit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in adhesives. It is referenced frequently in LEED as a testing criteria for VOCs.
See “Dye methods.”
A method of dyeing yarn. Space dye refers to yarn with multiple colors printed on each strand. There are three basic processes used to create this effect: the warp system, the knitde- knit process and the continuous dye process. (1) In the warp system, multiple strands of yarn are continuously printed at spaced intervals with different colors. These yarns usually have “long” spaces of each color. (2) In the knit-de-knit process, the yarn is ﬁrst knitted into a tubular fabric (sock), then dyed to a solid color and then overprinted with up to seven different colors. These yarns usually have “short” spaces of color.(3) In the continuous dye process, yarn is dyed as singles or plied yarn and color is applied either by air jet or dye rolls. This process allows for yarns to have either long or short spaces of color.
The device (similar to a showerhead) that forms strands of filament as molten polymer is pumped through. It is at this stage that the ﬁber cross section, ﬁber size and the number of ﬁlaments in a yarn bundle (for continuous ﬁlament) are determined.
The conversion of staple ﬁber into spun yarn. See “Parallel spinning.”
Yarn that is made up of short lengths of ﬁber, either synthetic staple or natural ﬁber.See “Parallel spinning.”
The ability of a carpet fiber to resist the absorption of stain and maintain its original appearance. For carpets to resist stains, some manufacturers use a topical stain-resist treatment that may be removed after hot water extraction.
Also called staple. Short lengths of ﬁber which have been chopped from continuous ﬁlament in lengths of 4” to 71⁄2”. Staple ﬁber must be further processed (spun) into yarn before it can be tufted/woven into carpet. Nylon and polyester are examples of synthetic ﬁbers available in staple form.
See “Antistatic properties.”
Static control test
A measurement of the amount of static discharge that occurs under specified conditions.
Buildup of electrostatic energy on a carpet and the subsequent discharge to a conductive ground such as a ﬁle cabinet. Various static control conductive systems are used in commercial carpet to dissipate static charge before it builds to the human sensitivity threshold, which is 3.5kV.
Stitches per inch (SPI)
Number of yarn tufts per running inch along the length of the carpet (as opposed to the gauge, which is the number of stitches across the width of the carpet).
See “Dye methods.”
Used for staple ﬁber only. Undyed, loose staple ﬁbers are dyed in a vat. They are then blended, carded and spun into yarn.
A trade name of a German manufacturing company and its continuous heatsetting process. In Suessen setting, dry heat is applied to twisted yarn. The heat builds bulk and locks twist into the thermoplastic ﬁber’s “memory.” See “Heatsetting.”
A trade name of a French manufacturing company and its continuous heatsetting process. In Superba setting, steam and pressure are applied to twisted yarn. Heat and pressure are applied to build the bulk and lock twist into the thermoplastic ﬁber’s “memory.” See “Heatsetting.”
The perimeter of an individual fiber ﬁlament or multiple filaments.
Technical measure of the tendency of a surface—in this case, the carpet yarn—to repel molecules of another substance. Low surface energy refers to a repelling action.
There are numerous definitions of sustainability; however, one of the most often cited definitions was developed by the Brundtland commission: “sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
Produced by man-made means, not available in nature in the same form.
The strength along the length of a fiber.
Visual and tactile surface characteristics of carpet pile, including such aesthetic and structural elements as high-low and cut and loop patterning, yarn twist, pile erectness or layover, harshness or softness to the touch, luster, and yarn dimensions.
A carpet’s ability to withstand crushing and matting. Although accelerated test methods do not directly compare with actual floor performance, they do give an indication of a carpet’s ability to withstand crushing and matting. See “Hexapod drum test” and “Vettermann drum test.”
A woven or tufted carpet style having all tufts in a loop form, usually with two or three pile heights. There is generally less difference between the lowest and highest pile heights than would be found in a multilevel loop carpet.
In synthetic ﬁber production, crimp or texture can be put into the ﬁber by different methods. The most common for carpet yarns are: (1) Air jet methods for BCF. In this texturizing process, yarn is fed through the turbulent region of an air jet. In the jet, the yarn structure is modified by heat and air. (2) Stuffer box method for staple. Yarn is fed into a chamber and compressed. The individual ﬁlaments are forced to fold or bend at sharp angles. See “Bulking.”
At room temperature, these plastics harden. When heat is applied, they become molten. Unlike thermosets, this process is reversible and the reintroduction of heat will make the product molten again. This is why thermoplastics are preferred for closed-loop recycling.
The latex found in our broadloom products is a thermoset plastic. The latex is applied to the carpet in a liquid state. Then heat is applied to drive off the water and cure the backing. This is an irreversible process and the reintroduction of heat will not return the product to a liquid or molten state.
Visible individual twisted cut yarn ends in a carpet surface. If, under heavy wear and pivoting, the tufts have been splayed open, the carpet is said to have lost its tip deﬁnition.
Tip sheared carpet
A textured loop pile carpet that has been sheared to create a cut and loop appearance.
Shaving off tufted high loops in the ﬁnishing process to create a cut and loop texture or pattern.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2)
A compound that is used primarily as a delusterant in fiber.
Weight (ounces) per square yard of the total carpet pile yarn, primary and secondary backings and coatings.
Continuous synthetic ﬁber ﬁlaments (without twist) collected in a loose rope-like form and held together by crimp. Tow is the form before ﬁber is cut into staple.
Triple Bottom Line
This is a method for evaluating performance that considers social, environmental, and economic issues as meaningful components of sustainable development.
A cluster of yarns drawn through a fabric and projecting from the surface in the form of cut yarns or loops. See also “Cut pile,” “Cut and loop pile,” “Level loop pile,” “Loop pile” and “Multilevel loop pile.”
The force (usually measured in pounds) requiredto pull a tuft from the carpet backing. Also known as tuft lock. For loop pile, ASTM Method D1335 (tuft bind test) should result in a minimum 10-lb. average. For cut pile, ASTM Method D1335 (tuft bind test) should result in a minimum 5-lb. average.
Carpet produced by a tufting machine instead of a loom.
A method of carpet manufacture in which surface yarns are sewn or “punched” through a primary backing material. The needles of the tufting machine form loops that are hooked by loopers on the underside of the backing material and which remain loops in level or textured loop carpet. Alternatively, the loops are tufted and cut with knives to create cut pile carpet. The tufted fabric is then coated with an adhesive to adhere a secondary back to provide durability and stability. In the past 5-7 years there have been significant advances in tufting technology, allowing for more intricate patterns and textures.
Turns per inch (TPI)
The number of times two or more yarns have been plied in an inch length. Also known as input ply twist. Most carpet yarns have 3.5 to 6.0 TPI.
Turns per tuft (TPT)
The number of twists in the pile yarn above the primary backing. A more accurate way of measuring relative twist level in cut pile carpets. Generally, the greater the turns per tuft, the better the performance.
A yarn term describing the number of turns per inch and direction of twist of either the singles or plies around their axes. Twist direction is either right- or lefthanded, also called “Z” or “S” twist. Most carpet yarns have 3.5 to 6.0 TPI. The performance of a cut pile carpet is dependent on the twist in the pile yarn. Spun yarns need more twist than ﬁlament yarns for good performance. For moderate or heavy commercial use cut pile, it is suggested that continuous ﬁlament have a minimum of 4.50 TPI while spun yarns have a minimum ply twist of 4.75 TPI.
Most common yarn ply. Two single yarns are twisted together, then heatset to maintain their twisted conﬁguration. Can be used in either cut or loop pile carpet.
U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)
The USGBC is a membership-based, nonprofit organization that promotes sustainability in how buildings are designed, built, and operated. USGBC is best known for its development of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) green building rating systems and its annual Greenbuild International Conference and Expo, the world’s largest conference and expo dedicated to green building. Bentley has been a member of USGBC since 1994.
Underwriters Laboratory (UL)
UL is an independent product safety certification organization that has been testing products and writing standards for safety for over a century. UL evaluates more than 19,000 types of products, components, materials and systems annually with 51 billion UL marks appearing on 72,000 manufacturers’ products each year. UL’s worldwide family of companies and network of service providers include 62 laboratory, testing, and certification facilities serving customers in 99 countries. They certify products to NSF 140.
See “Backing systems.”
See “Backing systems.”
Woven carpet made on a loom similar to a Wilton loom but lacking the jacquard mechanism. Velvet carpets are generally level loop, level cut/loop or plush, in solid or tweed colors.
Verified Emissions Reduction (VERs)
VERs are tradable commodities that indicate a quantity of emissions reductions through the capture and/or sequestration of climate changing emissions (i.e. greenhouse gases). VERs and carbon offsets are sometimes used interchangeably and considered synonymous.
Vettermann drum test
An instrument to test pile floor coverings to produce changes in appearance and color due to changes in surface structure by mechanical action. This accelerated test, primarily used in the U.S., provides a specific rating of the ability of the carpet to withstand crushing and matting.
Colloquial term for the synthetic polymer, polyvinyl chloride. Also called PVC. PVC is used as a carpet back-coating for carpet tiles and 6’ goods. Vinyl foams have been used as attached cushions. Many walk-off mats have solid sheet vinyl backing.
This term that refers to products that are made with 100% new, raw materials and contain no recycled materials.
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
Many VOCs are human-made chemicals that are used and produced in the manufacture of paints, pharmaceuticals, and refrigerants. VOCs are of concern as these compounds are unstable and can be released into the environment. All Bentley products undergo VOC testing from the CRI to ensure compliance as a low emitting material.
A weaving term for yarns in woven fabrics and carpets that run in the machine direction (or lengthwise). Warp yarns are usually delivered to a weaving loom from a beam mounted behind the loom. Woven carpets usually have three sets of warp yarns, which may be wound on three loom beams. These include stuffer warp for lengthwise strength and stiffness; pile warp, which forms the carpet surface tufts; and chain warp, which interlaces with ﬁll yarn to lock the structure together.
This is a process during which waste is combusted to produce energy. Carpet is often burned for energy; however, this process is reasonably controversial and is sometimes thought to be the least environmentally friendly form of landfill diversion.
Irregular random shading or pile reversal in cut pile carpet. Although much research has been done in an effort to determine the cause for watermarking, there has never been a single or consistent reason determined.
The original method for manufacturing carpet. In the weaving process, backing yarns are woven into a durable fabric while, simultaneously, face yarns are looped over wires and interlocked in the woven back. See “Axminster” and “Wilton.”
Yarns which run widthwise in woven carpet interlacing with various warp yarns.
White dyeable fiber
Man-made fiber that is extruded as a white fiber. The fiber can be dyed any color using a variety of dye methods either before or after the tufting/weaving process. See also “Dye methods.”
A type of woven carpet and the loom used to manufacture it. Wilton looms have jacquard pattern mechanisms which use punched cards/computer programs to select yarn color. The carpets are often patterned or have multilevel surfaces. See “Frames.”
Parts of carpet weaving looms composed of thin metal rods or blades on which the pile tufts are formed. Round wires and cut wires are identical in shape. The cut wire has a small knife blade at the end and, as it is withdrawn, it cuts the yarn looped over it to form cut pile.
The original carpet fiber. Wool is noted for its excellent dyeability, luxurious feel and relatively high cost.
Spinning method which produces bulky, hairy yarn, usually used for wool yarns. A series of cards, or large cylinders with comb-like teeth, straighten the ﬁbers into a paralleled ﬁber webbing. This webbing is blended with other webbing, then spun into yarn.
Also known as modified worsted spinning or parallel spinning. See “Parallel spinning.”
A tufted carpet term for primary or secondary backing manufactured by the weaving process. Secondary backings are usually woven jute or woven polypropylene.
Carpet produced on a loom. Warp pile yarns intertwine with wires and backing yarns called warp yarns. These yarns are locked in with the weft yarns. Warp stuffer yarns are included to provide extra stability. Weaving is a slower, more expensive, labor-intensive fabrication method than tufting. Woven carpet is distinguished by intricate patterns and tailored, controlled textures.
Xenon arc lamp
The bulb used in the lightfastness fadeometer test. It contains a special gas, xenon, which produces an intense light that accelerates the color fading reaction. The fadeometer measures lightfastness in relative test hours. See “Fadeometer.”
With unlimited color flexibility, XTI® nylon provides very good performance and resilience. XTI® nylon is ideal when budget constraints are a reality but performance and color flexibility are essential.
A continuous strand of ﬁbers used in tufting, weaving and bonding to form carpet and other fabrics. Carpet yarn is often plied and may be either spun staple or continuous ﬁlament.
An indication of the number of singles yarns combined to form a plied or heathered yarn.
A number used to describe the size of the yarn. Denier is used for BCF yarns, and cotton count for spun yarns.
Applying color to yarns that are later used in making carpet. It can be in continuous yarn dyeing methods such as space dyeing or batch methods such as skein dyeing.
The weight measure of the total bundle of ﬁlaments making up a yarn that indicates if the yarn is ﬁne or coarse. Continuous ﬁlament yarns are sized by the denier or decitex system. Spun yarns are sized by the cotton count system. See “Denier” or “Cotton count.”
Total amount of yarn used in the manufacturing of carpet. It is measured in ounces per square yard.
Zero-Net Energy Building
A zero-net energy building is one that relies on renewable sources to produce as much energy as it uses, usually as measured over the course of a year. Zero-net energy buildings begin with sustainable, intelligent design to incorporate renewable energy strategies such as solar panels, heat recovery systems, geothermal heating, and wind turbines. The Executive Order 13514 was issued in 2009 and mandates that all new federal buildings must be net zero by 2030.
A loop pile carpet in which tufts are pulled from the backing resulting in long, lengthwise pulls out of the carpet. Zippering occurs when the tuft base is not securely encapsulated by the backing compound.